DIgSILENT PowerFactory 2024 full cracked release

$ 220.00

DIgSILENT has released PowerFactory 2024.

We are pleased to introduce this new version of PowerFactory, which includes further developments to the user interface, as well as new analysis functions and many new and enhanced network models.

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The significant developments in PowerFactory 2024 include:

  • Extended functionality for the Cable Analysis module to meet revised industry standards as well as greater flexibility for cable layout specification
  • Developments in Modelica modelling for dynamic simulation, both in the model definition and the graphical representation
  • Enhancement to Co-Simulation, allowing automatic region detection and definition for co-simulation
  • Support of curative redispatch in the Unit Commitment and Dispatch Optimisation function
  • State Estimation for unbalanced networks, suitable for low voltage distribution grids
  • Incorporation of LV Load Flow into the Hosting Capacity and Connection Request functions
  • Many new and enhanced Power Equipment Models, to support extended calculation features and offer greater flexibility in modelling
  • Extensions to the Drawing and Diagram Layout Tools to allow easy creation and representation of complex elements such as towers, cable systems or controllers, as well as network groupings
  • Introduction of user-defined Hotkeys and a customisable Quick Access menu

With the new features in PowerFactory 2024, we continue the process of enhancement and development which ensures that PowerFactory remains the ideal tool for a wide range of network planning and operational studies, from small micro-grids to large transmission and distribution networks, including HVDC and renewable technologies.

Contingency Analysis

The Contingency Analysis tool in DIgSILENT PowerFactory has been designed to offer a high degree of flexibility in configuration, calculation methods and reporting options. Single- and multiple- time-phase contingency analyses are available, both of which offer automatic or user-defined contingency creation based on events, and the consideration of controller time constants and thermal (short-term) ratings.

  • AC, DC and AC linearised analysis methods, including regional assessment
  • Outage levels: n-1, n-2, n-k
  • Fast contingency screening with recalculation of critical cases using AC method
  • Single and multiple time phase consideration
  • Dynamic contingencies option for creating fault cases “on the fly”
  • Remedial Action Schemes for flexible and dynamic analysis of post-fault actions
  • Substation automation via switching schemes
  • User-configured time-sweep analysis with parallelisation option
  • Generator effectiveness and quad booster effectiveness
  • Enhanced Fault Case management
  • Comprehensive spreadsheet reporting features, including graphical ­visualisation of critical cases
  • Tracing of individual contingency cases
  • Contingency comparison mode
  • Parallelised Contingency Analysis using multiple cores

Quasi-Dynamic Simulation

Power Factory offers Quasi Dynamic Simulation  for the execution of medium to long term simulations. Multiple load flow calculations are carried out with user-defined time step sizes. The tool is particularly suitable for planning studies in which long term load and generation profiles are defined, and network development is modelled using variations and expansion stages.

  • Medium- to long-term simulations based on steady-state analysis
  • Time and Time-Profile characteristics for simplified modelling of (recurrent) time series
  • Consideration of planned outages, network Variations & Expansion Stages
  • Flexible definition of simulation time range with arbtirary resolutions
  • Simulation plots and tabular reports including statistical analysis
  • QDSL-language for user-definable models (load flow and quasi-dynamic equations)
  • QDSL model encryption funcionality1
  • Parallelised simulation using multiple cores
  • Use of neural networks for fast approximation of results2

1Requires DPL/DSL/QDSL Encryption Function licence. DIgSILENT does not give any express warranties or guarantees for cryptographic security of encrypted models. In particular, DIgSILENT does not guarantee that the details and functionalities of an encrypted model are secure against all means of access or attack attempts.
2Requires Artificial Intelligence licence

Network Reduction

The Network Reduction Tool enables the analysis of networks where the effect of adjacent networks needs to be considered but are not required to be modelled in detail. Adjacent networks are reduced according to a user-specified boundary, with the tool creating the required equivalent elements for subsequent load flow and short circuit calculations.

  • Flexible definition of boundaries with Boundary Definition Tool
  • Calculation of (AC or DC) load flow and short-circuit equivalent
  • Support of load, Ward, extended Ward and REI-DIMO equivalents
  • Regional equivalent method for flexible reduction of neighbouring systems
  • Network Reduction for Dynamic Equivalent, to support ­balanced RMS simulations1
  • Numerous options for aggregation of non-linear elements
  • Capturing of reduction via Variation for convenient toggling between original and equivalent grid

1Requires RMS Function licence

Protection Functions

A comprehensive relay library based on manufacturer-specific protection devices is available and can be used in steady-state and for dynamic simulation. The protection device models are highly detailed and completely aligned with StationWare, allowing settings exchange with real protection devices. A range of protection concepts is supported, including time-overcurrent, distance, differential, directional, over-voltage and under-voltage, over-frequency and under-frequency, out of step protection and power swing blocking. Various graphical representation of protection device characteristics are available such as Overcurrent-time diagram with drag and drop functionality, R-X  and P-Q diagrams, and diagrams for differential protection. Validation of selected settings can be done graphically via Time distance diagrams or with Overcurrent-time diagrams, or automatically via protection audit tools. Selected settings can be reported in tables and exported for further investigation.

  • Comprehensive relay library with relay models suitable for steady-state, RMS and EMT1 calculations
  • Synchronisation with DIgSILENT StationWare
  • Highly-detailed spreadsheet reports for protection settings (overcurrent, distance, voltage, frequency protection)
  • Graphical visualisation and editing of fuses, relays, CTs and VTs including auto layout functionality
  • Protection Audit
    • Validation tool for protection settings and configurations
    • User-configurable fault types assessment
    • Automatic determination of protection topology
    • Automatic short-circuit calculation
    • Multiple predefined reports with auto-identification of critical protection settings (device coordination, device tripping times, fault clearing times)
    • Short-Circuit Trace functionality for steady-state simulation of fault clearance and relay responses

1Requires Stability Analysis Functions (RMS) or Electromagnetic Transients (EMT) licence

Time-Overcurrent Protection

  • Overcurrent-time diagram with drag & drop functionality including auto-generated graphical legend
  • Cable and transformer damage curves
  • Motor starting curves
  • Automatic display of measured currents
  • Steady-state response checks
  • Steady-state short-circuit simulation with tracing of individual steps
  • Steady-state tripping times for transient or sub-transient current/voltage values
  • Transient response checks (requires Stability Analysis functions (RMS) or Electromagnetic Transients functions (EMT))1
  • Protection Graphic Assistant
    • Customisable short-circuit sweep diagrams including visualisation of protection settings
  • Protection Coordination Assistant
    • Automatic calculation of overcurrent protection settings
    • Support of various coordination methods and setting rules, including user-defined rules
  • Protection model features
    • Fuses and low-voltage circuit breakers
    • Positive-, negative-, zero-sequence inverse and definite time characteristics
    • Thermal overload characteristics
    • Directional elements supporting cross-, self- and memory polarising, Wattmetric method
    • Differential unit with harmonic blocking for multiple harmonic orders
    • Generic and detailed manufacturer-specific recloser units
    • Signal transmission between relays, inter-tripping, interblocking schemes
    • Detailed CT, VT, combined CT/VT , and CVT models including ­ saturation
    • Over-, under-voltage inverse and definite time characteristics
    • Programmable logic unit
    • Over-, under-frequency and df/dt inverse and definite time characteristics2

1Requires Stability Analysis Functions (RMS) or Electromagnetic Transients (EMT) licence

2Requires Stability Analysis Functions (RMS) licence

Distance Protection

  • Requires Time-Overcurrent Protection
  • P-Q diagrams and R-X diagrams with support of the display of measured impedance trace
  • Time-distance diagrams, with metric or calculated display of zone reach in forward and reverse direction
  • Protection Graphic Assistant
    • Reach of protection zones colourings in diagrams
  • Protection Coordination Assistant
    • Automatic calculation of protection settings
    • Support of various coordination methods and setting rules, including user-defined rules
  • Protection model features
    • Generic and detailed manufacturer-specific Mho, polygonal distance zones and distance starting units
    • Out of step detection and power swing blocking unit1

1Requires Stability Analysis Functions (RMS) or Electromagnetic Transients (EMT) licence

Arc-Flash Analysis

The Arc-Flash Analysis tool supports various international recognised standards and recommendations for Arc-Flash Hazard calculations. All calculation results can be represented graphically or in tables and Arc-Flash labels can be generated. Different ways of specifying the fault clearing time are offered; if the Protection Functions licence is available, the Arc-Flash Analysis can be configured to take into account protection devices and their fault clearing times.

  • Arc-Flash calculation for AC systems in accordance with IEEE 1584-2002 and -2018, NFPA 70E-2021 and DGUV 203-077 and EPRI
  • Arc-Flash calculation for DC systems in accordance with NFPA 70E-2021 and DGUV 203-077
  • Incident Energy, Flash-Protection Boundary and PPE Category on the single line diagram
  • Automated preparation of Arc-Flash labels
  • Automatic protection-based fault clearing time determination1
  • Calculation of arcing-current energy

1Requires Protection Functions licence

Cable Analysis

The PowerFactory Cable Analysis tool contains two packages: Cable Sizing and Cable Ampacity Calculation.
The Cable Sizing package can be used either to verify the suitability of the assigned line types or to obtain recommendations for new line types according to a selected International Standard or according to user-defined voltage, thermal, and short-circuit constraints.
The Cable Ampacity Calculation assists in the determination of the maximum allowed current of a cable by taking different factors into account such as conductor temperature, the local environment  and other cables nearby.

Cable Sizing

  • Automatic cable sizing based on IEC 60364-5-52, BS 7671, NF C15-100, NF C 13-200, VDE 0298-4 and VDE 0276-100
  • Support of standard Load Flow, LV Load Flow and User-defined Current options
  • Cable sizing optimisation priority
    • Cable cross-section
    • Parallel cables
    • Cost
  • Downsizing of cables
  • Consideration of thermal loading constraints for lines
  • Consideration of terminal voltage limits and limits on voltage change along feeders and/or cables
  • Consideration of short-circuit constraints
  • Balanced (positive sequence) or unbalanced calculation with support of all phase technologies (1-, 2- and 3-phase systems, with or without neutral conductor)
  • System phase technology and cable type consistency checks in the feeder
  • Various verification reports and automatic modification of cable types in the existing network via Network Variations

Cable Ampacity Calculation

  • Cable Ampacity calculation based on IEC 60287 or Neher-McGrath method
  • Evaluation of maximum allowable current for cables based on cable material, laying arrangement and environmental data including presence of external heat sources
  • Convenient cable layout modelling capabilities, supporting all laying arrangements of single and multi-core cables
  • Detailed reports and automatic modification of cable derating factors in the existing network via Network Variations

Power Quality and Harmonic Analysis

With the Harmonic Load Flow Calculation and the Frequency Sweep Calculation, the user is able to analyse the modelled network in the frequency domain. The frequency-dependent network impedance offers valuable clues about possible resonances in the network and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The harmonic load flow combines the network impedance with harmonic sources, resulting in the level of the harmonic distortion for each location in the network.

Harmonic Load Flow

  • Harmonic voltage and current indices (IEC 61000-3-6, BDEW 2008)
  • Balanced (positive sequence) and unbalanced (multiphase) model
  • Option to consider n-1 / n-k contingencies1
  • Unbalanced harmonic sources
  • Non-characteristic and inter-harmonics
  • Multiple harmonic injections: current and voltage sources, thyristor rectifiers, PWM-converters, SVS, non-linear loads, Norton-equivalents
  • Background distortion frequency-dependent R and L values
  • Various harmonic distortion indices such as THD, HD, HF, THF, TAD, TIFmx, total RMS currents and voltages, loadings and losses (defined according to IEEE and DIN/IEC standards)
  • Harmonic distortion plot with pre-defined distortion limits according to international standards
  • Waveform plots
  • Calculation of K-Factors and Loss Factors for 2-winding transformers (UL1562, EN 50464-3 (replaces BS7821), EN 50541-2, IEEE C.57.110-1998)

Flicker Analysis

  • Flicker Assessment (IEC 61400-21):
    • Short- and long-term flicker disturbance factor for continuous and switching operations
    • Relative voltage changes
  • Flickermeter (IEC 61000-4-15):
    • EMT or RMS signals
    • Support of multiple file formats as COMTRADE, CSV, user-defined, etc.

Frequency Sweep

  • Automatic step size adaption or constant step size
  • Balanced (positive sequence) and unbalanced network model
  • Option to consider n-1 / n-k contingencies1
  • Self and mutual impedances/admittances (phase and sequence components)
  • Automatic identification of resonances
  • Frequency-dependent R and L values and line/cable models
  • Spectral density of voltage amplitude/angle
  • Risk assessment of sub-synchronous oscillations using radiality factors

Filter Analysis

  • Various filter models
  • Design and layout parameters
  • Filter sizing and verification reports
  • Ripple control analysis


1 Requires Contingency Analysis licence

Connection Request Assessment

The assessment of connection requests is simplified with this dedicated tool, which supports the D-A-CH-CZ, BDEW and VDE-AR-N 4105 guidelines. After creating and configuring the Connection Request element based on the given data, the assessment can be performed like any other calculation. The output report shows dedicated results for each of the aspects to be assessed, such as voltage changes, flicker and harmonics.

  • According to:
    • D-A-CH-CZ guidelines Editions 2 and 3
    • BDEW 2008, 4th supplement
    • VDE-AR-N 4105 guidelines (2011 and 2018)
    • VDE-AR-N 4100 guidelines (2018)
    • VDE-AR-N 4110 guidelines (2011 and 2018)
  • Assessment of:
    • Voltage changes and flicker
    • Voltage imbalance
    • Loadings and short-circuit currents
    • Harmonics, interharmonics, audio-frequency ripple control
    • Commutation notches
    • Interharmonic voltages
    • HV resonances

Transmission Network Tools

This suite of tools aimed at transmission network operators and planners includes options for analysing the voltage stability and power transfer capabilities of the network.

PV curves calculation

  • Voltage stability assessment by determination of critical point of voltage instability
  • Support contingency analysis, i.e. detection of “limiting contingency”1

QV curves calculation

  • Voltage stability limit assessment by evaluating the bus voltage change w.r.t. variation of injected reactive power
  • Evaluating of stable operating points for various system loading scenarios, including contingencies1
  • Determination of reactive power compensation by superposition of capacitor characteristics in QV plots

Power Transfer Distribution Factors

  • Analysis of the impact of a power exchange between two regions
  • Various load and generation scaling options

Transfer Capacity Analysis

  • Determination of maximum power transfer capacity between two regions
  • Various load and generation scaling options for exporting and importing region
  • Thermal, voltage and contingency constraints options

Flow Decomposition

  • Calculation of loop flows, transit flows and import/export power flows
  • Identification of HVDC- and phase-shifting transformer induced cycle flows


1 Requires Contingency Analysis licence

Distribution Network Tools

The Distribution Network Tools functions can be used to analyse and improve the key aspects of a distribution network. The range of tools begins with the determination of the optimal tie open point according to the minimisation of losses or reliability indices, whilst observing network constraints. It continues with the optimisation of the voltage profile, with the objective to be prepared for a growing number of distributed energy resources or a growing number of loads within the LV network through estimation of the optimal tap position of the distribution transformers. For unbalanced network conditions, the phase balance optimisation helps to find an optimal balance for the load and generation units between the three phases.

The package also includes a tool for optimising capacitor placement and a hosting capacity tool for evaluating the maximum distributed energy resources and/or spare load capacity of the network.

Low Voltage Load Flow Calculation

  • Load flow calculation which takes into account the stochastic consumption behaviour of loads
  • Use of coincidence curves linked to LV loads
  • Optional scaling and coupling

Hosting Capacity Analysis

  • Evaluation of the maximum distributed energy resources (DER) and/or spare load capacity of a network
  • Consideration of thermal, voltage, protection1 and power quality limits2
  • Graphical visualisation of maximum, minimum and average capacity of the system
  • Tabular reports of the maximum capacities and limiting components for feeders and terminals
  • Parallel computing using multiple processor cores

1Requires Protection Function licence
2Requires Power Quality and Harmonics Analysis licence

Tie Open Point Optimisation

  • Optimisation of tie open point positions subject to loss minimisation, ­improvement of system reliability, or minimisation of switching actions
  • Support of balanced/unbalanced systems
  • Simultaneous optimisation of single or multiple scenarios and time periods
  • Branch and boundary flow limits, absolute voltage, and voltage drop/rise constraints
  • Enhanced reporting features and graphical visualisation, including ­automatic identification of tie open points
  • Various methodologies, such as mesh exploration heuristic, ­genetic algorithms, and simulated annealing

Voltage Profile Optimisation

  • Verification and optimisation mode
  • Voltage profile optimisation for bi-directional power flows in systems with a high level of distributed generation
  • Determination of optimal distribution transformer tap positions for production and consumption cases (simultaneous or independent)
  • Combined consideration of MV and LV feeder voltage profiles with enhanced plotting features

Phase Balance Optimisation

  • Automatic reconnection of loads, generators, and/or branch elements in order to achieve minimal power imbalance
  • Minimisation of unbalance at feeding point or average imbalance in feeder
  • High flexibility to also allow for partial reconfiguration
  • Capturing of results via Variations for convenient toggling of original and optimised phase connections
  • Various methodologies, such as standard heuristics, genetic algorithms, and simulated annealing

Optimal Equipment Placement

  • Determination of optimal locations and sizes of new storage units and voltage regulators
  • Economic assessment to minimise the overall costs including costs for installation, operation and maintenance
  • Optimisation of existing storage units, voltage regulators and transformers
  • User-definable time periods and resolutions
  • Consideration of thermal and voltage limits, as well as equipment-specific constraints
  • Automated generation of optimal time characteristics for power dispatch of storage units and tap positions of voltage regulators
  • Numerous reporting facilities and result visualisations
  • For standard size optimisation problems: ships with built-in solver
  • For solving large-scale problems: integrated interface to external solvers such as CPLEX and GUROBI1

1CPLEX and GUROBI licences to be purchased separately

Optimal Capacitor Placement

  • Determination of optimal locations, types, phase technology and sizes of capacitors
  • Economic assessment considering costs of losses against installation costs under predefined voltage constraints
  • Support of load variation via characteristics

Economic Analysis Tools

The Economic Analysis Tools package provides a means of combining conventional network analyses with economic considerations, to assess the economic impact of network and power plant developments.

The Techno-Economical Calculation (TechEco) function can be used to analyse costs and benefits of network expansion using Net Present Value. TechEco analyses investment costs, cost of losses, interruption costs and the economic impact of project schedules.

Power Park Energy Analysis provides an evaluation of the profitability of power plants based on load flow calculations, including options for time-series and probabilistic analysis.

Techno-Economical Analysis

  • Economic assessment of network expansion strategies
  • Net Present Value method considering costs of losses, investment costs, economic impact of failure rates (only with Reliability Analysis functions), and project schedules
  • Efficiency ratio evaluation to determine optimal year of investment
  • Parallelised execution using multiple cores
  • Study Case Comparison tool, for the evaluation and comparison of different network development strategies
  • Reporting options for input data and calculation results

Power Park Energy Analysis

  • Economic evaluation of power plants based on load flow calculations, with three calculation methods for energy analysis
  • Basic Analysis:
    • Designed for power parks consisting of wind generators
    • Simulation of power generation via wind speed distribution (Weibull) and wind power curves
  • Time-series Analysis1:
    • Energy analysis of power parks over a user-defined period of time using the quasi-dynamic simulation
    • Highly flexible data input, using characteristics for many network equipment parameters
  • Probabilistic Analysis2:
    • Power park energy analysis, taking probability distributions of various quantities into account
    • Monte-Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo methods available
    • Range of further statistical evaluation possibilities
  • Comprehensive report function: report losses, profits and costs, energies, full load hours and more
  • Selection of relevant plots with predefined variables

1Requires Quasi-Dynamic Simulation licence

2Requires Probabilistic Analysis licence

Probabilistic Analysis

The Probabilistic Analysis allows network assessment based on probabilistic input data rather than assessment of individual operation scenarios or time sweeps. It becomes important as soon as input parameters are known to be random or if one wants to simulate the grid at some time in the future with forecast errors.

A probabilistic assessment processes probabilistic data input and produces stochastic results.

Probabilistic Analysis is offered for:

  • Load Flow Analysis;
  • Optimal Power Flow.1
  • Network assessment based on probabilistic input data
  • Supports Probabilistic Load Flow and Probabilistic Assessment of OPF1
  • Unlimited stochastic input data modelling with flexible distribution curve objects
  • Includes probabilistic modelling of generation with PV systems and/or wind generators, as well as variable load consumption
  • Support of numerous distributions, such as uniform, normal, log-normal, Weibull, exponential, geometric, Bernoulli, finite discrete
  • Modelling of dependencies via correlation objects
  • Auto-conversion tool to estimate distributions and correlations based on historic profiles/time series data
  • Monte Carlo and fast Quasi-Monte Carlo method
  • Determination of statistical results for any calculation quantity, including means and standard deviations (with their confidence intervals), maxima, minima, higher order momenta
  • Rich post-processing and plotting facilities for calculation results, including their distribution functions, density functions, correlations
  • Post-assessment of critical worst-case or average cases via Probabilistic Analyzer

1Probabilistic assessment of OPF also requires Optimal Power Flow licence

Reliability Analysis Functions

Network reliability assessment is used to calculate expected interruption frequencies and annual interruption costs. Reliability analysis is an automation and probabilistic extension of contingency evaluation. The relevance of each outage is considered using statistical data about the expected frequency and duration of outages, taking into account the protection systems and the network operator’s actions to re-supply interrupted customers. This optimal power restoration process can also be analysed and carried out for individual contingencies.
Reliability assessment involves determining, generally using statistical methods, the total electric interruptions for loads within a power system during an operating period. The interruptions and their effects are described by several indices, which are calculated in the simulation. Together with the reliability analysis, an optimal way of placing remote controlled switches (RCS) can be determined, in order to resupply as much demand as possible in the shortest time, with a given number of RCS.
The package also includes Generation Adequacy Analysis, where the system supply capabilities are analysed with the help of stochastic methods.

Failure models

  • Line/cable, transformer, distribution transformer, busbar and circuit breaker failures
  • Generator failures with stochastic multi-state model
  • n-1, n-2 and common mode failures (n-k)
  • Double earth faults
  • Independent second failures
  • Protection/circuit breaker failures
  • Protection over-function

Optimal Power Restoration

  • Failure effect analysis (FEA)
    • Automatic protection-based fault clearing
    • Intelligent high-end system restoration with potential network ­reconfiguration and load-shedding
    • Support of branch and boundary flow limits, absolute ­voltage and voltage drop/rise constraints
    • Sectionalising (remote controlled switches, short-circuit ­indicators, manual restoration)
    • Substation automation with switching rules
  • Animated tracing of individual cases
  • Detailed reports for restoration action plans

Reliability Assessment

  • Fast state enumeration for balanced/unbalanced systems, including optimal power restoration techniques
  • Calculation of all common reliability indices (IEEE 1366)
  • Contribution of components to reliability indices
  • Support of load variation, including load distribution curves
  • Support of generation dispatch profiles
  • Consideration of maintenance schedules
  • Support of various tariff and cost models
  • Parallelised Reliability Assessment using multiple cores

Optimal Remote Control Switch (RCS) Placement

  • Determination of optimal number and locations for RCS installation for improvement of system reliability
  • Economic assessment for various objective functions

Optimal Manual Restoration

  • Calculation of optimal switching scheme for manual power restoration phase

Optimal Recloser Placement

  • Optimal locations for reclosers, to improve reliability indices

Generation Adequacy Analysis

  • Stochastic assessment of system supply capabilities (loss of load probabilities, capacity credit, etc.)
  • Consideration of generator outages and maintenance schedules (Monte Carlo), as well as load variation
  • Enhanced probabilistic models for wind generation
  • Rich suite of reporting and plotting tools

Loss of Grid Assessment

  • Risk assessment for loss of grid supply to critical power stations

Optimal Power Flow

The PowerFactory Optimal Power Flow serves adds intelligence to the existing load flow functions. Where the standard load flow calculates branch flows and busbar voltages based on specified “set points” (active/reactive power generation, generator voltage, transformer tap positions, etc.), the OPF then calculates the “best possible” values for optimising a user-specified objective function and a number of user-defined constraints.

  • Optimisation of load flow according to user-selected objective functions
  • For AC Optimisation, standard solver or IPOPT solver
  • For DC Optimisation, standard CBC or LP solver, or commercial solvers such as CPLEX or GUROBI1

Reactive Power Optimisation

  • Minimisation of total or partial grid losses
  • Maximisation of reactive power reserve
  • Reactive Power Optimisation (interior point method)
  • Various controls such as:
    • Generator reactive power
    • Transformer and shunt taps
    • Static Var Systems
  • Flexible constraints such as:
    • Branch flow and voltage limits
    • Generator reactive power limits
    • Reactive power reserve
    • Boundary flows

Economic Dispatch

  • Requires OPF (Reactive Power Optimisation)
  • Various objective functions, e.g.:
    • Minimisation of losses
    • Minimisation of costs (eco dispatch)
    • Minimisation of load shedding
    • Optimisation of remedial post fault actions, e.g. booster tap changes (pre- to post fault)
  • AC optimisation (interior point method)
  • DC optimisation (linear programming)
  • Various controls such as:
    • Generator active and reactive power
    • Transformer, quad booster and shunt taps
    • Static Var Systems
  • Flexible constraints such as:
    • Branch flow and voltage limits
    • Generator active and reactive power limits
    • Active and reactive power reserve
    • Boundary flows
  • Contingency constraints (DC only)2


1 CPLEX and GUROBI licences to be purchased separately
2 Requires Contingency Analysis licence

Unit Commitment and Dispatch Optimisation

The Unit Commitment and Dispatch Optimisation tool allows users to easily complement traditional network simulation with a market simulation, without any need for an external tool, providing a single entry point of information for simulation models. The module solves the unit commitment linear-programming problem over a predefined period of time, while optimising the operating point of the dispatched generators such to minimise overall operating costs. Hence it smoothly combines the functionalities of a Quasi-Dynamic Simulation, Optimal Power Flow and Contingency Analysis. The function supports both internal as well as external LP-solvers like IBM CPLEX and GUROBI, thereby allowing the integration of existing LP simulation environments into PowerFactory.

Unit Commitment and Dispatch Optimisation
  • Power plant dispatch optimisation for Market Simulation
  • Minimisation of redispatch costs, such as operating, emission and startup costs, including curtailment of renewables / load shedding
  • Optimisation (AC and/or DC) of generator dispatch schemes including hydro units, batteries and general storage devices, as well as control units such as phase shifters and HVDCs
  • State-of-the-art solutions for performance and memory efficiency
  • User-definable time periods and resolutions
  • Hard and soft constraints including branch and boundary flow limits, voltages, as well as ramping, minimum up/down times or spinning reserves of generators
  • Consideration of contingencies in the optimisation, including parallelisation option1
  • Curative redispatch options for managing contingencies1
  • Powerful redundant constraint filter methods
  • Seamless integration of all market parameters into network model
  • Numerous reporting facilities, and result visualisations, including energy plots and dispatch schedules
  • Post-assessment tools for detailed investigations
  • Automated generation of optimal solution scenarios and time series
  • For standard size optimisation problems: ships with built-in solver
  • For solving large-scale problems: integrated optional interface to external solvers such as CPLEX or GUROBI2


1 Requires Contingency Analysis licence
CPLEX and GUROBI licences to be purchased separately

State Estimation

The State Estimation (SE) function of PowerFactory provides consistent load flow results for an entire power system, based on real time measurements, manually entered data and the network model. It provides bad data identification, observability analysis and state estimation.

  • Assessment of balanced and unbalanced networks
  • P, Q, I and V-measurement models
  • Measurement plausibility checks
  • Automatic bad data detection/elimination
  • Verification of system observability
  • Various options to handle unobservable regions (e.g. pseudo measurements)
  • Consideration of load flow constraints

Stability Analysis Functions (RMS)

The RMS simulation tool in PowerFactory can be used to analyse mid-term and long-term transients under both balanced and unbalanced conditions, incorporating a simulation scan feature.  DIgSILENT Simulation Language (DSL) is used for model definition, and a large library of IEEE standard models is available. Flexible co-simulation options are also available.

  • Multi-phase AC networks, DC networks
  • Support of balanced and unbalanced grid conditions
  • Fast, fixed step size and adaptive step size algorithm
  • A-stable numerical integration algorithms supporting long-term stability simulations with integration step sizes ranging from milliseconds to minutes, individually selectable for each model
  • High precision event and interrupt handling
  • Simulation of any kind of fault or event
  • Transient motor starting (synchr./asynchr. machines)
  • Support of all protection library relays
  • Real-time simulation mode
  • Simulation scan feature, e.g. frequency scan, loss of synchronism scan, synchronous machine speed scan, voltage-/voltage recovery scan, fault ride through scan or common variable scan
  • Frequency Analysis Tool, including Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Prony Analysis for single point in time as well as time-range assessment
  • Frequency Response Analysis tool for dynamic models with Bode/Nyquist plots

User-Defined Dynamic Models (UDM)

  • High-level UDM Representation
    • Graphical modelling environment for the development of UDMs
    • Support of native models (inbuilt elements, DSL and Modelica), as well as externally-interfaced models (FMI and IEC 61400-27)
    • Support of highly scalable concepts for deployment of UDMs in large power networks using Composite Model Frames and Composite Models
    • Access to input/output signals of any network element
    • Support of scalar and vector based signals as well as various signal multiplexing options for easy distribution of signals from/to many components
    • Nesting of Composite Model Frames enabling complex system architectures e.g. interfacing between dispatch center controls, power plant controls and subordinated power equipment components
    • Inbuilt support for creation of user-defined power electronics topologies for EMT Simulation via submodels
    • Support of complete power equipment models: easily pack, export, import and deploy complex UDMs using General Templates
  • DIgSILENT Simulation Language (DSL)
    • Graphical modelling environment for development of complex DSL models
    • Large inbuilt library of DSL macros for simplified creation of block diagrams
    • Support of complex non-linear time-continuous control models including advanced functionality e.g. step size independent solution, instantaneous event triggering, fast simulation options
    • Inbuilt editor for coding user-defined DSL models using DIgSILENT Simulation Language
    • Large inbuilt standard model library, including IEEE, IEC, WECC and CIM ENTSO-E models
    • Automatic initialisation of complex, non-linear models
    • Configuration script for initialisation using DPL
    • Compilation of DSL models into DLLs for improved simulation performance
    • Option for automatic compilation of DSL models
    • DSL Encryption function1 for protection of intellectual property data when using non-compiled (open) DSL models
  • Modelica Simulation Language
    • Graphical modelling environment for development of complex Modelica models
    • Inbuilt library of Modelica basic blocks for simplified creation of models containing hierarchically structured block diagrams
    • Support of time discrete (clocked) control models including array signals and variables, sequential algorithms and selectable data types
    • Inbuilt editor for coding user-defined models using Modelica Language
    • Hierarchical parameter structure for Modelica models
    • Configuration script for initialisation using DPL
    • Export Modelica model using the FMU Export function2
  • Interfaces for Dynamic Models
    • Import external models using Functional Mock-up Interface (FMI 2.0 for Co-Simulation, FMI 2.0 for Model Exchange)
    • Import external models using IEC 61400-27 DLL C-interface
    • Communicate with external components using the OPC interface3 or various applications (e.g. real-time simulation)
    • Communicate with external components using the IEEE C37.118 simulation interface4 for PMU data streaming

Co-Simulation Functionality

  • Single domain co-simulation (RMS balanced – RMS balanced, RMS unbalanced – RMS unbalanced, EMT – EMT5)
  • Multiple domain co-simulation (RMS balanced – RMS unbalanced – EMT5)
  • Co-simulation with external solver6 (e.g. third party power systems ­simulation program) using FMI 2.0 (Functional Mock-Up Interface)
  • Computing supported as built-in for increased performance
  • Both accurate (implicit) and fast (explicit) co-simulation methods ­available
  • Support of multi-port Norton/Thevenin remote network equivalents for explicit method
  • Easy to define co-simulation border using boundary objects
  • Any number of co-simulation regions can be defined
  • Co-simulation of networks split by regions depending on any criteria: localisation, voltage levels, etc.

1 Licence for DPL/DSL/QDSL encryption required. Encryption Function licence. DIgSILENT does not give any express warranties or guarantees for cryptographic security of encrypted models. In particular, DIgSILENT does not guarantee that the details and functionalities of an encrypted model are secure against all means of access or attack attempts.
2 Requires FMU Model Export licence
3 OPC interface licence required
4 C37 Simulation Interface licence required
5 EMT licence required
6 Requires separate Co-Simulation Interface licence

Electromagnetic Transients (EMT)

PowerFactory provides an EMT simulation kernel for solving power system transient problems such as lightning, switching and temporary over-voltages, inrush currents, ferro-resonance effects or sub-synchronous resonance problems. Together with a comprehensive model library, a graphical, user-definable modelling system (DSL), and options for co-simulation, it provides an extremely flexible and powerful platform for solving power system electromagnetic transient problems.

  • Integrated simulation of electromagnetic transients in multiphase AC and DC systems
  • Fast, fixed step size or adaptive step size algorithm
  • Simulation of static var compensations (SVC), thyristor controlled series compensations (TCSC), FACTS, STATCOM, etc.
  • Modelling of HVDC interconnections: line commutated converter (LCC) HVDC, two-level PWM Converter, half- and full-bridge MMC converter
  • Power electronic devices and discrete components (diode, thyristor, PWM converter, rectifier/inverter, DC valve, soft starter, etc.)
  • Support of advanced constant and frequency-dependent distributed parameter models for OHL and cables
    • Phase- and modal-domain model types
    • Parameter calculation for overhead lines and cables
    • Twisting overhead lines and cross-bonding of cables
    • Multi-phase single-/ multi-core, cable and tubular cable systems
    • Calculation of layer impedances and admittances
  • Non-linear elements and saturation characteristics, including definition of hysteresis
  • Series capacitors, including spark gap model
  • Surge arrestor models
  • Impulse voltage and current source for lightning surge analysis
  • Support of AC-DC intercircuit fault events
  • Accurate EMT models of renewable generation (wind/PV, etc.) and storage systems
  • Discrete R-L-C elements
  • Flexible template definition to create and re-utilise user- specific models library
  • Insulation coordination analysis including temporary (TOV), switching (SOV) and lightning (LOV) transient over-voltages
  • Stochastic switching analysis and point-on-wave (POW) switching
  • Simulation scan feature (variable scan)
  • Frequency Analysis Tool, including Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Prony Analysis for single point in time as well as time-range assessment
  • Inrush, ferro-resonance, SSR and TRV studies
  • COMTRADE file support
  • Sophisticated circuit breaker modelling and switch event options: DC breaker support, TRV envelope curve, phase scatter upon switching

User-Defined Dynamic Models

  • see RMS module for details

Co-Simulation Functionality

  • see RMS module for details

Motor Starting Functions

The Motor Starting Toolbox enables quick assessment of various motor starting scenarios and their impact on the system and reports commonly needed performance indicators like voltage drop before/during/after starting, starting time, grid loading, etc. The analysis is carried out via either a static calculation or a dynamic simulation.
The toolbox features an easy to use analysis procedure that increases productivity while still retaining model customisation flexibility.

  • Single or multiple motor starting
  • Transient motor starting (synchr./asynchr. motors), with full support of controller models
  • Steady-state motor starting
  • Various motor starting methods (reactor, auto-transformer, variable rotor resistance, star delta, etc.)
  • Thermal limit check of cables and transformers
  • Automatic starting check function, visualised in Single Line Diagram
  • Detailed report

Small Signal Stability (Eigenvalue Analysis)

DIgSILENT PowerFactory offers a module for the analysis of the small signal stability in a power network, using an eigenvalue analysis tool which is suitable for balanced and unbalanced network representations. The calculation can be configured to consider all modes of oscillation in the system, or to perform a selective analysis (especially useful in large networks). It considers not only conventional generation, but also non-conventional generation such as wind turbines, PV systems and HVDC.  The results can be visualised in an eigenvalue plot or tabular reports, including all relevant information such as frequency of oscillation, damping and damping ratio. In addition, the participation factors of the state variables, observability (right eigenvectors) and controllability (left eigenvectors) can be visualised in bar and phasor plots.

  • Full and selective eigenvalue analysis
  • Balanced (positive sequence) or unbalanced network representation, ­including combined AC and DC modelling, with non-conventional generation such as wind turbines, PV systems, HVDC, VSC and other FACTS devices
  • Interactive and mutually linked eigenvalue, mode bar and mode phasor plots
  • Visualisation of eigenvectors in network diagrams
  • Tabular reports of eigenvalues, including damped frequencies, damping time constants
  • Detailed reports of oscillatory modes including participation factors of state variables, controllability
    and observability

System Parameter Identification

This built-in system of identification and general optimisation procedures provide an easy and accurate method to perform model parameter identification on the basis of system tests and field measurements, working from input reference values generated in PowerFactory or taken from external files. Suitable for load flow models as well as time-domain simulation models, it is able to identify multiple parameters at once, with constrained (only positive) and unconstrained options available for each parameter and is fully integrated into the graphical frame definition and block diagrams. The optimisation procedures provided are highly generic and can also be used for optimally tuning parameters such as PSS settings according to defined model response functions.

  • Parameter estimation of non-linear dynamic MIMO-systems fully integrated with DSL modelling
  • Black box parameter estimation of non-linear systems
  • Identification of any calculation relevant parameter (type, element, control model)
  • Multi-parameter identification with flexible upper/lower limitation
  • Various algorithms available (gradient based, swarm intelligence, pattern search, global optimisers)
  • Support of load flow, Quasi-Dynamic Simulation1, RMS-simulation (balanced/unbalanced) and EMT-simulation2
  • Multiple options for optimisation, using field measurement data or simulation results

1Requires Quasi-Dynamic Simulation licence
² Requires Stability Analysis Functions (RMS) or Electromagnetic Transients (EMT) licence

Scripting and Automation

Automation of PowerFactory tasks is possible using Python or the DIgSILENT Programming Language (DPL), and is further enhanced with Add-on Modules to allow users to extend the existing PowerFactory Functionality.

  • Python: Integration of Python as programming language with full PowerFactory data model access, extensive suite of functions, and support of virtual Python environments
  • DPL (DIgSILENT Programming Language):
    • C-like syntax supporting unlimited access to PowerFactory objects, parameters and their functionality
    • Extendable function scope of DPL via C-Interface, thus allowing access to external data and applications
    • Encryption of DPL Scripts1
  • Detailed Scripting Reference documentation for Python/DPL (750+ pages) including function descriptions and example code snippets
  • Add-on Modules: framework for user-extendable function scope including data model extension concept for user-definable input attributes and result parameters
  • API (Application Interface): C++ interface for full external automation of PowerFactory
  • Task Automation Tool for parallelised execution of calculation functions and scripts

1Requires DPL/DSL/QDSL Encryption Function licence. DIgSILENT does not give any express warranties or guarantees for cryptographic security of encrypted models. In particular, DIgSILENT does not guarantee that the details and functionalities of an encrypted model are secure against all means of access or attack attempts.

Artificial Intelligence

  • Innovative use of neural networks for fast power system analysis
  • Automatic generation of datasets for neural network training
  • Training of neural networks using GPU capabilites1
  • Application of trained neural networks for ultra-fast Quasi-Dynamic Simulations

1Requires dedicated NVIDIA GPU with a compute capability of 3.5 or higher


  • API – Application Interface (API is part of the module Scripting and Automation)
  • OPC DA/UA Interface1 – SCADA interoperability standard, A/D signal interfacing
  • IEEE C37.118 simulation interface2 – PMU protocol
  • Co-Simulation interface3 Third party EMT/RMS co-simulation interface based on the FMI 2.0 standard

1Requires OPC Interface licence
2Requires C37 Simulation Interface licence
3Requires Co-Simulation Interface licence

DPL/DSL/QDSL Encryption

The “DPL/DSL/QDSL Encryption“ module offers the possibility to encrypt the script code of a DPL-/DSL-/QDSL-object and protect it with a password. The encrypted object can be executed without the password. However, the password needs to be entered to edit or view the script code.1

1The user should be aware that encryption can never guarantee complete security. The chosen technology balances the requirements for security with the usability and performance of encrypted models. Generally, users are advised to share models only with trusted partners.